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^ - MEMORIAL - - 

^ OF THE ^ 

lOO^ANNWERSARY 

OF THE 

WAR OF 181^^14 






Historical Sketches 



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• . ** . 



OF THE 

Hundredth Anniversary of the 
War of 1812-14 



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■• BY 

R. W. GEARY 

President of the Lundy's Lane Historical 
Society. 



n 



Published by 

THE LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Public Library Building, Niagara Falls, Ont. 

1912 



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A Short Account of the Battle 




^ of Lundy's Lane. 

"Hozv sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
By all their country's wishes blest?" 

HE battle of Lundy's Lane was fought on 
the heights near the Falls of Niagara, on 
July 25th, 1814, between 3,000 British 
and Canadian troops, in command of 
General Sir Gordon Drummond, and the 
invading American army of 4,000 men — in three 
brigades — under Major-General Brown, and Gen- 
erals Scott, Ripley and Porter. 

The declining sun shone bright and cloudless as 
the troops of the opposing armies, with drums beat- 
ing and colours flying, marched gallantly to their 
positions in the field. On the summit of the hill a 
battery of 24-pounder guns was advanced some dis- 
tance in front of the indomitable "89th" regiment, 
the "8th King's," and the "1st" or "Royal Scots"— 
the oldest regiment in the British army. These 
famous regiments occupied the northern slope of 
the hill, in support of the guns, and formed the 
British centre. With the additional troops of the 
"41st," "103rd," "Canadian Militia," "Glengarry," 
"104th," and other regiments, the British Hne of 
battle was extended in the form of an irregular cres- 
cent facing the south and south-east, its left wing 
(under Gen. Riall) crossing the Portage Road, near 

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the junction with Lundy's Lane, and reaching a few 
hundred yards further east. The right wing 
stretched westward along the north side of Lundy's 
Lane for a short distance, then curved to the south, 
through an orchard and a field of wheat, to the 
dense woods beyond, where a body of Indians 
formed its extremity. 

The strategic importance of the British position 
compensated somewhat for Drummond's unequal 
numbers, as no better ground could be chosen for 
resisting an attack. 

The battle began at half-past five in the evening, 
with a charge by the Americans on the whole British 
front, the attack being chiefly directed against the 
centre and left. The centre attack was repelled by 
a deadly fire of grape from the artillery on the 
height, but after repeated attacks the left was forced 
back and General Riall wounded and taken prisoner 
—with a number of his men. The "9th," "11th," 
and "22nd" U. S. Infantry then charged impetu- 
ously upon the guns and, after a desperate fight, 
were repulsed by the "89th," "King's" and "Royals," 
who had advanced to their support — the assailants 
retiring in great confusion with heavy loss. Again 
the Americans advanced in great force and concen- 
trated a terrible fire from nine pieces of artillery 
against the British centre. A fierce artillery duel 
followed, in which the British guns maintained their 
superiority, one U. S. company losing twenty-seven 
out of thirty-six men serving three guns, before 
retiring. 

4 



Again and again were determined attacks made 
by the gallant foe, and met by the British with great 
steadiness and intrepid gallantry. Drummond's 
despatch states that — "These troops repeatedly, 
when hard pressed, formed round the colours of the 
*89th' regiment, and invariably repulsed the attacks 
made against them." 

By the faint light of the smoke-obscured moon, 
the battle continued to rage. In a brilliant and suc- 
cessful flank attack by Col. Miller's regiment, its 
approach being concealed by a thicket, all the British 
gunners were killed or wounded by a single volley 
at close range, and the guns on the hill cap- 
tured by the Americans, amid a most destructive 
musketry fire from the British infantry. Then fol- 
lowed a series of furious bayonet charges and fierce 
attacks by the British. With wild shouts of defiance 
their remaining guns were brought up, and the con- 
tending forces swept the hill with a deadly fire of 
artillery and musketry at short range — with fearful 
loss on both sides. 

During this prolonged and desperate contest. Gen- 
eral Scott, who had two horses killed under him, 
was struck twice and, being badly wounded, was 
carried off the field. A musket shot went through 
General Ripley's hat. General Brown was shot 
through the thigh and shortly after struck by a ball 
in the side and seriously hurt. He made over the 
command to General Ripley, and retired to his camp. 
General Porter also received a wound and General 
Drummond was dangerously wounded in the neck, 

5 



and had his horse shot dead. The conflict now be- 
came a close and confused struggle amdist the bat- 
tle's smoke and the darkness of night, until finally 
Capt. Glew, at the head of the gallant *'41st" regi- 
ment, by a splendid effort, regained the British guns 
and the heights. The fighting continued until mid- 
night, when the Americans, having three generals 
disabled and nearly one-third of their number killed 
and wounded, fell back to the south side of the 
Chippawa — leaving the British in possession of the 
field. 

The British loss in the engagement equalled that 
of the Americans, the 89th Royal Irish regiment, 
who bore the brunt of the battle, losing 254 men out 
of a total of 400, and the "Royal Scots" lost nearly 
200 men out of 500 in the field. Scott's 1st Ameri- 
can Brigade, at the close of the action, was reduced 
to a few hundred effective men, and a company of 
the 23rd Infantry that went out with forty-five lost 
all but nine men. 

The result of the battle of Lundy's Lane was 
of great importance to Upper Canada, as the inva- 
sion was checked and the American army thrown 
back on Fort Erie, where it remained on the de- 
fensive until shortly before the end of the war. 

The fallen heroes of that fateful night sleep well 
upon this famous hill, where the sounds of Nia- 
gara's war of waters forever rise and fall above 
their honored graves. 



Brief Sketches of Places of Historic 

Interest and Natural Beauty at 

Niagara Falls and Vicinity. 




CHIPPAWA. 

|HIPPAWA is the most ancient village on 
the Canadian frontier. The French had a 
stockade at the mouth of the river before 
the conquest of Canada by the British, 
and during the Revolutionary War the 
British built a blockhouse, and had a force of regu- 
lars there. In 1812-14 this fort was strengthened, 
also a strong "tete-de-pont" built, with four heavy 
guns, at the head of the bridge, and a redoubt fur- 
ther up. Chippawa was the scene of an important 
battle during the War of 1812-14, in which the Brit- 
ish were defeated, and at the time of the Canadian 
Rebellion it was the centre of great military activ- 
ity. Laura Secord died at Chippawa in 1868, where 
she had lived for fifty years. Her cottage by the 
river is of much patriotic interest. 



THE FALLS OF NIAGARA AND QUEEN 
VICTORIA PARK. 

Of world-wide fame — have also war associations: 
General Brock, in July, 1812, built a stone battery 

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on the cliff "at the head of the lower ladder," to 
dominate the ferry below the falls. He also placed 
a defence of two heavy guns on the heights at Falls 
View, and during the retreat of the American army 
from Lundy's Lane the "Bridgewater mills" (near 
Dufferin Islands) were burned. 



NIAGARA GLEN, OR ''FOSTER'S FLATS." 

A great natural botanical preserve, hundreds of 
acres in extent, where almost all the various species 
of the flora of Canada grow in profusion, among 
immense rocks, gloomy caves and deep ravines — 
beside Niagara's rushing waters. Splendid speci- 
mens of native trees, wild flowers, rare ferns and 
mosses abound in wonderful variety and beauty in 
this secluded and picturesque glen. 



QUEENSTON AND QUEENSTON HEIGHTS. 

Queenston is called after the Loyal American 
regiment of "Queen's Rangers," who had a bar- 
racks there during the War of the Revolution. It 
is noted for tlie memorable battle of Queenston 
Heights, Oct. 13th, 1812, where the British General, 
Sir Isaac Brock, was killed, and the American army 
was defeated and taken prisoners by the British. 

The original Brock's monument was blown up by 
Canadian rebels in 1840, the present famous monu- 

8 " I 



ment being completed in 1860, at a cost of nearly 
$50,000. 

The magnificent view from Queenston Heights is 
considered to be the finest in the Province. 



ST. DAVID'S. 

A U. E. Loyalist village of the earliest settlement, 
named after Major David Secord. It was burned 
by the Americans in 1814, and Sir Peregrine Mait- 
land, a former Governor, resided there at one time. 

St. David's — with its encircling hills, wild ravines, 
magnificent trees, vineyards, fields and groves, orch- 
ards and springing streams — is the most beautiful 
sylvan or rural locality in the Province of Ontario. 



STAMFORD VILLAGE. 

A picturesque and historic place on the old Port- 
age Road — with a ''village green" and ancient 
houses, churches and churchyards. 



FORSYTH'S. 

An historic place on Main street near the Falls, 
where General Sir Gordon Drummond had his mili- 
tary headquarters for some months in 1814, he being 
then Governor of Upper Canada also. Subsequently 

9 



the Earl of Elgin, Governor-General of Canada, with 
Lady Elgin and their son. Lord Bruce, took up resi- 
dence there for two years (1850-51), and during 
that time entertained many distinguished visitors, 
amongst whom was Jenny Lind, the famous Swiss 
singer, who sang there before Lord Elgin's house- 
hold and a number of invited guests. 

The old colonial house (which was situated in the 
centre of the grounds) has been since destroyed by 
fire. 



LUNDY'S LANE BATTLEFIELD— DRUM- 

MOND HILL. 

See ''account of the battle," and ''Drummond Hill 



monuments. 



)> 




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Notes on Some Historic Monuments 

and Tombs in Drummond 

Hill Cemetery. 

LUNDY'S LANE BATTLE MONUMENT— 
DRUMMOND HILL. 

''This Pillar fair, of sculptured stone, will shozv 
Forever, in the light of glory, how 
Bngland and Canada stood fast that night 

At Lundy's Lane, and conquered for the right." 

IHE remains of 22 soldiers of the Royal 
Scots, 89th, 103rd, and other British regi- 
ments, lie in the vault beneath this granite 
shaft. These remains were unearthed at 
different times in various parts of the 

battlefield, and were re-interred on each occasion, 

with imposing military ceremonies. 




LAURA SECORD'S MONUMENT. 

''One of the most patriotic and courageous 
Women of any age or country." 

The artistic bronze bust on this monument repre- 
sents the heroine at the age of 38 years, when she 
made her famous journey. Her family then con- 
sisted of four daughters and one son; two other 
daughters were born subsequently. When King 
Edward VH., then Prince of Wales, visited Niagara 
Falls in 1860, he was greatly interested in Laura 

11 



Secord's history, and on his return to England sent 
her the sum of one hundred pounds. 



THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL. 

Captain Hull, who gallantly led the last charge of 
the Americans in the Battle of Lundy's Lane, fell at 
this spot and lies buried here. The remains of 18 
U.S. soldiers recently unearthed on the battlefield 
were re-interred here also with international mili- 
tary honors. 

'The First Grave," A.D. 1797. The burial took 
place 17 years before the battle was fought. 

Tomh of Lt.-Col, the Hon. Cecil Bishopp, with 
an interesting inscription and marble tablet. Col. 
Bishopp was a brave young British officer, who took 
Black Rock, and was killed during the War of 
1812-14. 

Monuments of Col. Gordon, Capt. Torrens, Capt. 
Patteson and Lieut. Hemphill. Brave British offi- 
cers who fell in the battles of 1812-14. 

Bdgeworth Ussher's Monument. — Ussher was 
assassinated near Chippawa in 1838, by Canadian 
rebels, headed by the notorious Lett, who afterwards 
blew up the first Brock's monument. 

Artillery and Infantry Trenches. — Where the 
slain British soldiers and gunners were buried after 
the battle of Lundy's Lane. 

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Lundy's Lane Historical Society. 




HE Lundy's Lane Historical Society was 
organized in 1887, and has the distinction 
of being the oldest historical society in the 
Province of Ontario. The late Rev. 
Canon Bull was its founder and first 
President, and the late James Wilson, C.E., Park 
Superintendent, its first Secretary-Treasurer. 

During the quarter of a century of its existence, 
the Society has done very important work in secur- 
ing the erection of enduring memorials on several 
historic battlefields of the Niagara Frontier, and by 
the publication and promotion of authentic histori- 
cal literature — in which it was greatly aided by Col. 
E. A. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C, the talented historian 
of the War of 1812-14. Much encouragement, too, 
has been given to the study of local history through 
public lectures and papers by prominent historians — 
and to the preservation of historical relics. The 
Lundy's Lane Historical Society's collection of war 
relics and antiquities, and the many private collec- 
tions of antique mahogany furniture, old china, pic- 
tures, Indian relics, military buttons, etc., in the 
possession of its members, are of great historical and 
artistic interest. 



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OFFICERS 

OF THE 

LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Honorary President . .Lieut. -Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C. 

President Robert W. Geary. 

1st Vice-President ....Rev. Canon Bevan. 

2nd Vice-President . . . H. L. Morphy. 

3rd Vice-President ...A, Monro Grier, K.C. 

Secretary-Treasurer . .Jno. H. Jackson, C.E., Park Supt. 

Ass't-Secretary Miss J, Quillinan. 

Corresponding Sec'y ..Principal J. C. Morden. 

Auditors m- w "^T""- 

(Abel Land. 



Bxeciitive Committee. 

Major Vandersluys, Col. W. W. Thompson, M.D. 

C. L. Biggar, Charles Patten, 

Robert Chisholm, Abel Land. 

Miss Barnett, Miss Henderson, 

Mrs. (Dr.) Birdsall, Miss H. Chrystler, 

James C. Morden, Rev. Jas. Barber. 

C. F. Campbell, Miss Butters. 
Rev. Dr. Wallis, 



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PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



The Battle of Lundy's Lane, by Colonel 

Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 50 pages, 15c. 

The Siege of Fort Erie, by Col. Cruik- 
shank, F.R.S.C SO pages, 15c. 

The Battle of Queenston Heights, by Col. 

Cruikshank, F.R.S.C. 46 pages, 15c. 

The Fight in the Beechwoods, by Col. 

Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 32 pages, 10c. 

Butler's Rangers, by Col. Cruikshank, 

F.R.S.C 114 pages, 20c. 

Drummond's Winter Campaign, by Col. 

Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 30 pages, 10c. 

Laura Secord, by Mrs. S. A. Curzon 16 pages, .05c. 

Annals of Niagara, by Wm. Kirby, 

F.R.S.C 270 pages, 40c. 

Niagara 100 Years Ago, by Miss Carno- 

chan 38 pages, 15c. 

A Century Study, by Rev. E. J. Fessen- 

den 26 pages, 10c. 

The Documentary History of the Cani- 

paigns upon the Niagara Frontier, in 

1812-14, by Lieut.-Col. Cruikshank, 

F.R.S.C. (Complete in 9 vols, of 

about 300 pages each), per vol 50c. 

Memorial of the 100th Anniversary of the 

War of 1812-14, by R. W. Geary . . 16 pages, .05c. 



The above publications are for sale at Thorburn s 3 
Drug Stores, cor. of Lundy's Lane and Mam St., Vic- 
toria Ave., and Erie Ave., and may be obtamed also at 
the Society's Rooms, Public Library Buildmg. 

All requisitions for books by mail should be sent to 
John H. Jackson, C.E., Secretary-Treasurer L L. H b. 
Administration Building, Q. V. Park, Niagara Falls, 
Ontario, Canada. 

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